mental health

Mental health is a key part of our overall well-being. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that there is no health without mental health. It is the source of our collective and individual ability as people to reach our full potential.

Mental health refers to the way in which we are aware of our own abilities and can cope relatively well with the ups and downs of life. Someone with good emotional well-being is capable of working productively and making a contribution to his or her community.

A range of factors can impact our emotional well-being. These include genetics, prolonged stress, physical illness and traumatic events. Environmental issues such as the economic, political and social climate can also have an impact.

Current figures suggest that one in four people in the UK will experience a mental health problem each year. The most common types include depression and anxiety. Both can greatly affect things like work productivity, physical health and the wider economy.

Talking therapies such as psychotherapy and counselling are considered effective forms of mental health support. This page will explore mental health in more detail and will look into key mental health statistics. It will also cover how counselling can help. 

Mental health statistics

The mental health statistics listed below offer insight into the nature of the problem worldwide. Please note: this list is not exhaustive. For more information, please see our Facts & Figures page.

  • Mental health problems affect 450 million people worldwide.

  • 1 in 6 adults in the UK will experience a significant mental health problem each year.

  • 1 in 10 children and young people between ages five and 16 have a clinically diagnosed mental health disorder.

  • Depression affects 2.6 in 100 people.

  • Anxiety affects 4.7 in 100 people.

  • Mixed anxiety and depression is the most common disorder in Britain (affecting 9.7 in 100 people).

  • More women than men are diagnosed with depression (1 in 4 compared to 1 in 10 men). 

  • Male mental health is a growing concern in the UK as suicide is currently the leading cause of death in men under the age of 50.

Types of mental health issues

Mental health issues can have a profound impact on how we think, feel and behave. They can range from the daily worries we all have from time to time, to serious long-term problems that require treatment to manage effectively.

According to the Mental Health Foundation (MHF), there are two main types of mental health problems. The categories are neurotic or psychotic symptoms. These definitions can help professionals with diagnosis and treatment. However, some people may experience a combination of the neuroses and psychosis. Therefore distinguishing between the two may not always be useful.

Neurotic symptoms

Individuals that have 'common mental health issues' are very likely to have neurotic symptoms. These are severe versions of 'normal' emotions, such as stress, sadness and anxiety. We all feel down or worried every now and then, but if those emotions start impacting daily life, it may be a sign of a mental health problem.

If mental health issues are ignored or dismissed as character traits it can lead to further problems. For example, some people may no longer feel able to lead an enjoyable and productive life. This is why it is so important to seek support as soon as your problems overcome your ability to cope.

Mental health issues with neurotic symptoms include:

  • depression

  • anxiety

  • obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

  • phobias

  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

  • panic disorders.

Psychotic symptoms

Mental health issues with psychotic symptoms are less common. Research shows around two in every 100 people in the UK have psychosis. Psychotic symptoms interfere with a person's perception of reality and may include hallucinations. These include seeing, smelling, hearing or feeling things that no one else can. People experiencing psychosis may also form unrealistic views about themselves, other people and the world around them.

If you are concerned about yourself or someone else, it is advisable to speak to your GP. They will be able to diagnose your condition and recommend treatment options. Medication and counselling are among the types of mental health support that will be offered.

Mental health issues with psychotic symptoms include:

  • schizophrenia

  • eating disorders

  • substance abuse

  • bipolar disorder

  • personality disorder.


When you get a physical illness like a cold, you may experience symptoms such as a sore throat and blocked nose. These signs tell you that something is wrong so you can take medication, or rest in bed for a few days. When it comes to our emotional well-being the signs aren't always so obvious. They are often hidden or mistaken for other things.

There is no set list when it comes to the signs and symptoms of mental health problems. Each condition varies and of course each individual is different, too. If you think you might have an issue with your emotional well-being, you should visit your GP.

Some very general signs to look out for include:

  • Withdrawing from society - Feeling the need to hide away by avoiding social contact.

  • Teary - Crying a lot or constantly feeling like you're about to cry.

  • Drop in productivity - Your grades go down or you stop performing so well at work.

  • Weight-loss or weight gain - Weight changes indicate a change in eating patterns, symptomatic of underlying emotions.

  • Dirty or untidy - Spending a lot of time in your 'comfy clothes', or failing to keep on top of your hygiene.

  • Tired - Feeling drained, dopey or lethargic.

  • Difficulty speaking - Getting your words jumbled up, forgetting the right word for something, or talking too quickly or slowly.

  • Spending too much - Being reckless with money.


As aforementioned, mental health issues can have a wide range of causes. Often it is not known exactly why someone develops symptoms. There are, however, certain factors that are thought to play a role in triggering problems. These are:

  • psychological

  • physical

  • social and environmental.

Psychological causes

A 'psychological cause' is something that affects the mind or emotional state. Traumatic experiences such as the loss of a loved one or a serious road accident can trigger mental health issues. When something traumatic occurs, it can completely change a person's perception of the world. This can result in feelings of anger, helplessness, fear and guilt. These may persist long after the event has happened. As a person tries to deal with and contain their negative feelings, unhealthy behaviours can emerge. Examples include self-harm, drug abuse, bulimia and suicidal thoughts.

Physical causes

A 'physical cause' is something that affects the body on a biological level. Physical causes of some mental health issues include:

  • Genetics - Experts believe some people are more at risk than others. They have a genetic 'predisposition' because of genes passed down from parents.

  • Early development - Some studies suggest a baby is at greater risk if his or her mother takes drugs or contracts a virus while she's pregnant.

  • Head injuries - In some cases people develop psychotic symptoms after a serious head injury.

  • Nutrition - Links have been found between certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies (e.g. Vitamin D, zinc and fatty acids) and our emotional well-being.

Social and environmental causes

The things that happen around us can have a big impact on mental health. Social and environmental causes include:

  • where you live

  • where you work

  • the relationships you have with family and friends.

Sometimes it is not possible to change these things but sometimes it is. If you can improve your social and physical environment somehow, then you may be able to improve your emotional well-being. Counselling is one means of mental health support that can help you make positive changes.

Living with mental health issues

Mental health issues are complex. Unlike a cold or cough, symptoms do not clear up after a course of antibiotics. Often people have to learn to live with their problems. They may find everyday situations such as work and socialising particularly difficult.

Some of the challenges faced include:

  • social stigma

  • going to work

  • going to school

  • relationships

  • parenting

  • physical health.

Social stigma

Unfortunately social stigma attached to mental health still exists in the UK. According to the MHF, nine out of 10 people with mental health issues are affected by discrimination of some kind. Other people's ignorance and lack of understanding can make it hard for people with certain conditions to maintain stable relationships, find work or suitable housing. Some may find themselves socially excluded from mainstream society.

Research and greater understanding of some conditions has helped change views of mental health. However, sensationalised films, news articles and stories mean misconceptions still exist. Common misconceptions include:

  • All people with mental health problems are dangerous and violent.

  • Mental health issues are a character flaw and not an actual condition.

In order to tackle these damaging stereotypes, more needs to be done to broaden communication between people with mental health issues and the wider community. This should help spread awareness that sufferers aren't 'mad', 'weak', or 'dangerous'. They are but normal people coping with challenging conditions.

Attending work and school

Mental health statistics show that one in six workers are dealing with a mental health issue at any one time. Certain problems can be caused by work (usually stress and anxiety), while some mental health conditions can impact our ability to work productively. Many people are reluctant to speak about mental health in the workplace. This is because they fear they may be penalised or judged for it.

Young people in school worry they'll face criticism, alienation or bullying if their peers know they have mental health issues. While it can be difficult to talk about their emotional well-being with peers, colleagues and bosses, keeping an open dialogue in school and the workplace is important. This is because it could help alleviate stigma and prevent problems from escalating.


Some mental health issues can make it difficult for people to build healthy relationships. When problems emerge after a couple has been together for some time, the new challenges can lead to difficulties. Frustration and lack of understanding can cause tension and arguments. Many relationships do not survive this. Couples counselling is helpful for those who are keen to open up and make space for change in their relationship. This type of mental health support can help couples to learn ways of coping with mental health issues together.


Having children can make it even more challenging living with mental health issues. Parents need to be stable and supportive to provide the best care for their children. Unfortunately, some mental health problems by nature make this difficult. The ups and downs, bad days and good days can be difficult for children to deal with. Having the right mental health support in place is important. Talking therapies such as mental health counselling can help families overcome the challenges together.

Mental health support

If you are concerned about your emotional well-being you should visit your GP. They will be able to diagnose any problems and recommend treatment. It is important to note that all appointments and topics discussed are completely confidential, and support is available to ensure the care of both female and male mental health.  

Mental health support covers a range of things designed to manage symptoms and improve quality of life. The most common types of treatments include:

  • Prescribed medication to control symptoms (they are not a cure).

  • Talking therapies including psychotherapy, counselling, group psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and other forms of mental health counselling.


Medication is prescribed to help reduce the symptoms of some mental health issues. Sometimes drugs can help to improve quality of life and make people feel less overwhelmed by their condition. However they are not provided as a cure. 

Depending on what type of problem you have, you might be prescribed:

  • Antipsychotics to reduce symptoms of psychosis (i.e. hallucinations, distorted view of reality).

  • Antidepressants to reduce the symptoms of depression (i.e. loss of emotion, low moods).

  • Mood stabilisers to moderate extreme changes of mood.

  • Benzodiazepines to reduce anxiety.

Mental health counselling 

Mental health counselling involves talking about your problems with a trained counsellor or psychotherapist. Talking therapies can help you understand what may have caused your problems and how to manage them.